How to Travel the World in Cheap

The truth is that most people like to travel. This is because that the unknown generally thrills you. With the broad access to information that we currently have, it’s easy to browse pictures of beautiful countries, which sparks the desire to travel even more. However, unfortunately this is a rather expensive pleasure. Therefore, not everyone can afford it. Nevertheless, there are some tips that would help you travel a lot cheaper and in some cases for free.

1. Swap homes

As a matter of fact, home swapping is rapidly becoming a trend and you can even find this method on some of the most popular travel websites. The fact is that the majority of travel expenses go towards accommodations. Therefore, when you swap your home with other fellow travelers you eliminate this particular line of expenses and your trip becomes much cheaper. It also has perks like a fully equipped kitchen, proper bathrooms, and things that you won’t find in a cheap hotel.

2. Carpool

This is a term that relates to numerous people traveling within the same vehicle. For instance, you can look for someone who travels in the same direction and you can split the expenses in half. As you can imagine, the more people you get the less you are going to pay for the travel.

3. Hitchhike

This is an old-fashioned method of traveling for free. Basically, what you want to do is try and stop people on the road and get them to drive you towards the direction they are heading. It’s a great way to meet new local people and it’s completely free, even though some hitchhikers offer some money in exchange for the favor.

4. Become a crew member of a cruise ship

This is a way not only to travel for free but to earn a few bucks as well. Enjoy visiting a wide variety of countries on a regular basis and earn money while doing it. Of course, there are some downsides – you will obviously have to work so there might not be enough time for sightseeing but generally crew members get some days off when the ship reaches its destination. This should be the best time for you to look around.

5. Use budget airlines

A few years ago, several airlines were created that offer incredibly low rates for their tickets. This is mainly due to the fact that you will be flying with almost no additional comfort but, after all, your main purpose is to see the world, not to fly in first class airplanes.

All in all, there are a wide variety of things that you could do if you want to travel the world cheap. Not every solution is incredibly expensive and if you use a combination of different tricks you can end up with a really affordable trip. Do take these into consideration especially if you want to save up some money for sightseeing.

Confused With All the Travel Information on the Internet?

There is so much information available on the internet right now regarding travel. There are online travel sites for cruises, hotels, air, trains and any other type of travel. But what is the correct product for you? Is the location of the hotel where you want to be? Is the type of room or cabin the right fit for you? Is that cruise line the one you should be booking? Not all products are created equal nor are the products right for everyone. How do you tell? Contact a travel professional.

Do travel agents exist?

There have been multiple articles, and even the President of the United States, has said travel agents don’t exist or are going away. In a way they are right. Travel agents in the past were just someone who booked a trip for someone who called or came in to the storefront office of a travel agency. Storefront travel agencies are few and far between now a days as most of the “travel agents” have gone home to work. Even the term “travel agent” is going away because what they do now is different than what they did before.

Travel Professionals/Travel Counselors

Travel Agents are now more a counselor and an adviser so they are now called Travel Professionals or Travel Counselor. Even the travel industry is trying to get away from using the term “travel agent”. They no longer just book a trip for someone, they know more than what is available to the traveling client. The travel professionals now are constantly learning, constantly traveling, receiving input from other travel professionals about where they have traveled and are a resource for what is required to travel now a days.

When you use an online travel agency like Expedia, Travelocity, etc. you aren’t able to have someone protect your back. They book the travel for you and then you are pretty much on your own. Say your flight gets cancelled, who is going to book a replacement flight? You are, not them. If you use a travel professional that travel professional will do it. If something goes wrong on your trip, if the room you booked is not like what you thought it would be, who is going to make it right? A travel professional will also check constantly for price drops before final payment and whether a new promotion offered would be more beneficial than what was booked with a deposit. All these things can be addressed before final payment.

A travel professional works with you from the time you first talk to them until you are home safe and sound and any and all problems have been solved or addressed.

It Costs More to Use a Travel Professional

This is not always true. True, some travel professionals charge fees but not all of them do. This is because some vendors, like airlines and some hotels, don’t pay commission or some of the vendors have decreased the amount of commissions paid to the travel professional. In order to make ends meet, some travel professionals charge fees. I charge $50 per person for airline reservations domestically and $100 for airline reservations internationally. I will also charge a fee sometimes for hotels for the same reason or if I am putting the various sections of the trip together myself. If I book a cruise or a tour, I don’t charge a fee as the vendor pays me a commission. Remember, whether you use a travel professional or not the commission is still being paid as it is automatically included in the price from the vendor. So, why not use a travel professional and avoid the hassle and save your time?

The rules for traveling are constantly changing and it is the travel professional who is able to keep their clients on track with them.

Examples: Passports

For instance, did you know that come January, 2016 you may need a passport to travel by air domestically? This is due to a law called the REAL ID Act. This requires all travelers to have a REAL ID compliant identification that includes all of these fields: full legal name, signature, date of birth, gender, unique identifying number, a principal residence address and a front-facing photograph of the applicant. Unfortunately there are still a handful of states that are non-compliant. Do you know which states are compliant and which aren’t? Your travel professional does. By the way, outright non-compliant states/territories are American Samoa, Louisiana and New Hampshire. The states of Minnesota and New York offer an optional Enhanced ID at a cost, so because it is optional, a large percentage of residents don’t have one. Some states have applied for additional extensions, but it is unclear if those will be granted. Currently, only four states (Louisiana, Minnesota, New Hampshire and New York) and American Samoa are technically non-compliant.

Also, we still don’t know if January 1, 2016 will be the date of the requirement or will it be later? Because of this law, the passport processing time for all will be affected. All the passports issued in 2006 to meet the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative that went into effect in 2007 are now expiring, causing a slew of renewals. So, because of those renewals coupled with the possible REAL ID enforcement, passport waits are expected to further increase. As of October 11, the current wait has already increased a week to four to six weeks for standard passports and three weeks for expedited. Expedited in person could be up to eight days based on travel need.

Ultimately the REAL ID Act will require all state-issued drivers’ licenses to include “machine-readable technology” or chips to help keep us safe and secure while traveling. For more information on the REAL ID Act go to

Also, passports are recommended for cruises just like they are required to fly outside of the United States. The reason being is if you do need to fly back to the United States from a foreign port you have a passport to do so. Just because you are on a cruise leaving a United States port, technically you are traveling internationally just as soon as you step on the ship as most ships are registered outside of the United States!

Example: Visas

A travel professional would be able to help you determine if visas are required to travel to where you want to go. If they don’t know for sure, they know where to send you for that information and get confirmation that you do or don’t need one for the type of travel you are taking. For instance, for most cruises if you leave an U.S. port and return to the same U.S. port you probably don’t need a visa to visit the ports. This is called a “closed loop” trip. But, again, most of the cruises. Always double check to see if one is needed.

Example: Travel Insurance

Again, not all travel insurance is created equal. Should you purchase travel insurance? Absolutely!!! I recommend to my clients not to purchase travel insurance, for the most part, from the supplier of the cruise or product. The reason being the coverage is not as comprehensive as third party policies. Travel insurance is not only purchased for travel delays, luggage lost/damage or cancellation protection. Some health insurance companies do not cover you when traveling outside of the United States. Medicare does not. Travel insurance will act as your primary health insurance during your travel, from the time you leave to the time you return to your home. Also, it provides emergency evacuation for health reasons and protects you for other items. Always read the policy and information provided by the issuer of the travel insurance to see what is covered. Your travel professional will know which is a good travel insurance issuer.

Las Vegas Tours: Grand Canyon Bus Tours During the New Year’s Holidays

Tired of the same old New Year’s parties and wish you could do something new and exciting? Then going to Vegas to celebrate is a great idea, plus you can tour the Grand Canyon while you are there. The Canyon is close to Vegas, so taking a bus tour is a good way to go.

Buses depart daily and provide you with a comprehensive day filled with fun. The bus tours are day long trips that take at least 14 hours to complete. You’ll have to get up early too, because buses leave for the National Park at 7 am.

Bus Tours To The West Rim

Vegas is situated closest to the West Rim, which is only 120 miles away. The West Rim is packed with adventure. The Skywalk is located there. The Skywalk is a huge viewing platform made with a transparent floor that’s suspended 4000 feet over the bottom of the Canyon, and it juts out 70 feet beyond the edge of the rock wall. The view from the Skywalk is amazing.

You’ll be allotted three hours to explore the West Rim after your bus drops you off there. There are notable lookout areas like Guano Point and Eagle Point to see along safe walking trails. You don’t want to miss visiting the lookouts for the fantastic panoramic views they provide. If you get hungry after your walk, you can buy drinks and snacks at the Skywalk Complex along with some souvenirs of your tour.

You can book a bus tour that includes tickets to the Skywalk in the package. You can also buy tickets once you get to the West Rim, but you’ll have to pay more.

Touring The South Rim

The South Rim is worth seeing too, but it is a lot longer ride. Even though the bus trip there takes five hours, the South Rim bus tour out of Vegas is very popular. When the buses depart from Vegas, they follow the initial route that the West Rim buses follow, so you’ll even get to see Boulder Dam and Lake Mead.

The South Rim is located in Arizona by the town of Tusayan, which is close to the main gates of the National Park. The tour bus takes you to all the best places to see, and you’ll have about three hours to tour the rim. You’ll make a stop at Grand Canyon Village and see great lookouts like Mather Point and Yaki Point. The South Rim is more isolated than the West Rim, and there is not as much commercial activity. The South Rim is the ideal destination if you’re looking to soak up natural beauty.

Buy Your Tour Online As Soon As Possible

All fees and taxes are included in the price you pay upfront for your bus tour. The tour even provides shuttle service to and from your hotel. Lunch is provided for you, but it’s a good idea to carry plenty of snacks and drinks too.

Bus tours to the Canyon are extremely popular with Vegas tourists. The holiday season is a busy time for Canyon tours, so get your tour booked as soon as you can. The best way to lock in your seats is to use your credit card to book your tour online.

Remember to include tickets to the Skywalk if you go to the West Rim. When you book a South Rim tour, you can add on a helicopter flight over the remote regions of the Canyon. There are several tour options on offer, and that makes it easy to book a tour that fits right in with your travel budget. So celebrate the New Year in a way you’ll never forget by taking a scenic and adventurous bus tour from Vegas to America’s favorite scenic landmark.

Why You Should Travel Young

Do it while you are young, or you’ll regret it later.’ We all have heard this sentence at least once in our life and scratched our heads in surprise. Well, it might sound weird but actually a young body and a young mind has much more power than any other age’s person. It is said that a youngster has the potential of creating a new world and a treasure of things that are hard to be done by anybody else. Similarly, traveling and taking trips while one is young helps them in a lot of things. From personality to behavior, everything gets a makeover when you travel while being young. Here is the list of the reasons that justify the same strongly.

1. It helps you in making decisions about life: A young mind has all the energy and enthusiasm to think about various aspects of life but making decisions about life requires a strong and mature mindset. While you take a trip, you get to explore new places, people and discover many new vistas that eventually helps you in making opinions and decisions too.

2. You become Smarter: Traveling isn’t only about discovering new places, meeting different people, but it is also about making choices that matter and affect you directly or indirectly. It gives you the power of deciding between what is wrong and what is right, hence giving you a mindset with the help of which you eventually become smarter.

3. You become an interesting person: This is yet another positive aspect of taking a tour that makes you likeable among others. The places you explore and the people you meet influence you in one way or the other, thus you tend to understand their perspectives and give yourself a new personality which is interesting and different too. You can notice the change yourself after taking a trip.

4. You’ll grow culturally and socially: This particular point clearly signifies the importance of taking an excursion while being young. The more you travel, the more you will get exposure and the more you’ll grow. Making a move takes you to different cities, places and get to know various cultures that teaches you the values and importance of culture and social life.

5. You learn to manage your life: Now this is something we all need to do but if you are wondering how you can manage your life while going on an excursion, then here is the answer. No trip is easy, you have to face many challenges and take hardships to reach your destination, and similarly, life has many ups and downs that can be managed once you start exploring.

6. It changes your way of relating to the world: Everyone has a different vision and their own type of intelligence. The behavior and actions of a human being also vary to different situations and even places. You might act normal at your home but accept it you are different at various places and with different people too. So if you go on an expedition, you get to know more things and act accordingly.

7. Because you deserve it: Like totally! I don’t think that this requires a justification even. It’s your life and your time so live and enjoy as much as you can because nothing stays forever and time doesn’t stop for anyone. So, book a cheap flight soon and explore that place you’ve been planning from long.

Classroom Technology in Higher Education

The interaction of students in higher education with computers may have been during computer classes or back at home. In fact, the face of technology that is most used to are probably social networking sites. In that way, technology offers very different meanings to many of these mature students. Therefore, when technology is being used in Higher Education, the initial challenge is to both establish the genuine merit of this new medium of instruction as also establishing the serious face of technology to students. To teach a student to learn Accountancy on computers, a gadget that he uses mostly for socializing is therefore a real challenge.

New Classroom Technology like Audience responses has proven to ably deliver stimulating learning environments. It gives a break from the lecture, giving students time to absorb the information. In some cases, it does energize the audience as the students learn better when there is some level of emotional arousal. Also, when they participate students have something in stake. These devices do seem to have that kind of positive effect on the energy of the room. The biggest problem might be calming them down after having used the device. This might be a greater problem than having to get them to pay attention. The new Classroom Technology solutions can meet the needs of the varied learning environments of the present times through these steps: Make ease the administration process – By automatically capturing grade book information, attendance and polling. Through this students can reach out to everyone at once, integrate data with ease and engage both inside and outside the classroom.

Therefore, if the instructors, professors, and department chair wants to maximize their capabilities and productivity in the Higher Education, they should switch to the new Classroom technology concepts.

Impact Of Modern Technology On Education

There is no doubt that modern technology has impacted in our life. It plays an important role in human life from various ways. It helps us to operate many critical and complex processes easily and effectively. Also in the education sector it impacted majorly and changes way of learning.

Computer Technology

In the education sector computers are revolutionary technology and you can’t avoid its importance in schools. It offers interactive audio visual media that allow rendering information to students via animation software and Power Point Presentation in an interactive manner. Visual effects have made learning more interesting for students.

Now days’ computer learning is a necessary part of education, so that students can gain basic knowledge of computer technology.

Internet Technology

The internet technology is providing huge information and it becomes a useful effective tool. Search engines are providing lots of information about any query. Various informative websites and web directories are providing wide knowledge. Internet is helping students to enhance their knowledge and gain some extra information too.

Internet and computer technology make distance learning simpler. Now, there is no need to be present in the classrooms, students can sit anywhere and learn. Internet also helps to submit assignment online that is now offered by number of colleges and universities.

The modern technology is not only helping us in education sector it also changing the world. Every where you can observe and sense the effect of technology. From traveling to communication everywhere technology is playing an important role and making human life trouble-free.

Grand Canyon Tours: Helicopter, Airplane Rides From Las Vegas And Arizona

Are you tired of the same old New Year’s holiday celebrations? Well, nothing could be more unique and exciting than taking an air tour of the Grand Canyon, and you can begin one of these tours in Arizona or Vegas.

Arizona air tours begin in the small town of Tusayan which is situated near the South Rim about three hours north of Phoenix. The Vegas air tours lift off from the Strip in Vegas and from an airfield in Boulder City. Holiday air tours are popular and the tours fill up in advance, so be sure to book your tour as soon as you can.

Booking your tour online is the most convenient way to lock in your seats, plus you’ll find the best discounts online as well. The New Year’s holiday will soon be here, so don’t delay booking your tour or you might not find enough open seats available on the tour you want.

Canyon Helicopter Tours

Touring the Canyon by helicopter is a fantastic experience. When you book a tour that departs from Vegas, you get to choose between a tour that lands at the Canyon and one that is air only. Helicopters out of Vegas fly over the Hoover Dam and Lake Mead on the way to the Canyon, and the air tours circle the rim and head back while the landing tours set down at the Canyon.

Try to book a landing tour if you can, because you’ll get a very comprehensive experience at the Canyon. Some of the landing tours set down on the Canyon floor, and when you get there, you are treated to a champagne picnic, plus you’ll have the opportunity to take a boat ride along the Colorado River. Other tours land on top of the Canyon rim where you can visit the Skywalk, which is a massive glass viewing platform that hangs over the Canyon. If you want the full experience, you can book a combination tour that lets you explore both the top of the rim and the Canyon floor.

The Tusayan air tours are all air-only because helicopters are not allowed to land inside the Canyon at the South Rim. This part of the Canyon is filled with spectacular natural beauty and you’ll get to see it from the air as your helicopter flies over to the North Rim and back to the South Rim. There are two air tour options, and one of them lasts 30 minutes and the other lasts 50 minutes. Book the longer tour if you can because you’ll get to see the South Rim, North Rim, and all the land over to the eastern Park border, which amounts to about 75 percent of the whole National Park. You’ll get to view many famous landmarks from the air, including the massive Dragoon Corridor.

Touring By Airplane

The air tours by plane fly along the same path as the helicopters, but they fly at a higher altitude. If you want to take an airplane tour to the West Rim, you can book a landing tour, however, airplanes can only set down on top of the rim so if you want to fly to the bottom of the Canyon, you’ll need to add on a helicopter ride to your tour. There is plenty to do on top of the rim though such as visiting the Skywalk and walking along the scenic trails.

The South Rim is too far from Vegas for helicopters to make it, but you can book an airplane tour from Vegas to the South Rim. The flight there takes about an hour, which is much quicker than the five hours it would take to drive. When your plane lands at the South Rim, you can transfer to a bus for a 2 1/2 hour ride through the Park, or you can transfer to a helicopter and fly over the rim.

The airplane tours follow the same path as the longer helicopter tours. You’ll see the entire land between the North and South Rim and over to the eastern border, which makes up about 75 percent of the entire National Park land.

An airplane tour is the ideal choice when you have several people on your tour. Nineteen people can fly on an airplane tour, while only six can fly at a time on a helicopter tour.

Wrapping Up

There are several options to choose from when you plan your New Year’s flight over the Canyon. There is a tour for any taste and budget, and you can depart from Arizona or Vegas and go by plane or helicopter. Some of the most popular tours to consider are the 50-minute air tours of the South Rim, and one of the landing tours of the West Rim. These tour options allow you to have a comprehensive experience at the Canyon.

By your tour online with your credit card to confirm your seats, and be sure to do it as soon as possible. When you buy online, you’ll get a fantastic deal and that gives you even more to celebrate as you tour the Canyon on New Year’s.

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950’s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.